A town with a thousand years of history and a number of major archaeological sites, the most important of which now forms part of the Torreparedones Archaeological Park. The old town centre still conserves part of its fortress and the narrow, winding streets of the old Arab medina. With its long tradition of olive cultivation, this region boasts Spain’s oldest Designation of Origin.

The town’s name comes from the name Baius, a landowner in the area. It reached its height after the turn of the 8th century, when many from surrounding settlements left the Iberian and Roman nucleus, Iponuba, 3 kilometres from Baena to settle there.

In 1241, Baena was handed over to Ferdinand III and was repopulated by Mudejares, Jews and people from Castile-and-Leon, who were subject to the hardships linked to living on the border, given its location in relation to the kingdom of Granada.

There are currently 21 000 inhabitants in the town.