The history of Baena transpires alongside the Guadajoz river, which crosses from southwest to west. Its tributary, the Marbella river, bathes the town centre itself. The uniqueness of its waters and soil have made it possible to shape a unique landscape. By way of example, the CUEVA DEL YESO (GYPSUM CAVE), eight kilometres from Baena and situated in an area known as Puente de la Maturra. This cavity, measuring 2,562.7 metres and representing the largest example of a cavernous space in the province of Cordoba, is home to five different types of bats, as well as several species of prawns, unique in the world.

Other spaces, such as the LAKES OF LA QUINTA AND RINCÓN DEL MUERTO, both included as part of the Andalusian Wetlands Plan, are two resources of high environmental value which serve as places for migrating birds like grey herons and pink flamingos to rest, feed and reproduce.

For its part, VADOMOJÓN RESERVOIR is one of the most important reservoirs of the Guadalquivir basin and its launch has enabled water sports and fishing activities to be developed in the area. Among its natural treasures, Baena also features the VÍA VERDE DEL ACEITE (OLIVE OIL GREEN ROUTE), which runs from the town centre to the former train station of the old railway line and can be enjoyed on foot, bike or on horseback.