Although the Baena’s current location originates in the Moorish hisn (castle), then named Bayyana as documented in the 9th century, archaeologists have yet to unearth proof of Islamic, Emirate or Caliphate occupation. By means of pact, the Moors handed Baena over to Ferdinand III in 1241. This was the onset of a slow manorialism process, during which the fortress was erected. This construct would play a significant role, since it was on the same border as the Nasrid Kingdom of Granada. There are no reliable data with regard the Almedina’s walled structure construction, although some sections, such as the Arco de Consolación and the Arco Oscuro horseshoe entrance arches are reminiscent of Almoravid and Almohad architecture, respectively. The castle has survived until our times and is located on the west side of the Almedina enclosure, and resembles a 14th or 15th century Christian construction. It is currently in a state of ruin as a consequence of the demolition carried out during the 20th century. However, Baena town council initiated a project that will recover most of the fortress. Archaeological excavations discovered several room structures linked to its last occupation (late 19th century/ early 20th century). Several doors were also uncovered; one of the most remarkable was found in the southern wall and could data back to the 14th century. The historical and archaeological studies and the restoration will boost Baena castle’s cultural and touristic value. Lastly, there are many more places of interest to visit, such as Mirador del Hospital (Hospital observation balcony), which offers wonderful panoramic views of the Sierras Subbéticas and Baena town centre; the Puerta de Córdoba gate, where the Cruz de Jaspe cross still remains -the only preserved station of the cross-; and the Moorish Fuente Mayor or Baena spring fountain, located outside the city walls en route to Cabra, which still features seven outlets and is covered by a portico. 



Plaza Palacio,Baena


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